1 Oidamen gar oti ean h epigeioV hmwn oikia tou skhnouV kataluqh, oikodomhn ek qeou ecomen oikian aceiropoihton aiwnion en toiV ouranoiV. The phrase to skhnoV is an epexegetical genitive. Windisch states that verse 1 and what follows express the expectation that the Christian is clothed with his heavenly body immediately after death. Death is not annihilation because a heavenly garment is prepared for us.
2 kai gar en toutw stenazomen, to oikhthrion hmwn to ex ouranou ependusasqai epipoqounteV, The clause is adverbial meaning “therefore” or “for this reason”. Our sighing proves that a heavenly garment awaits us and that our present existence is temporary. We long for that heavenly garment which lies ready for us which awaits us after death. The heavenly body can be conceived as a garment of Nessus consuming the old corporeality with its flame of life.
3 ei ge kai endusamenoi ou gumnoi eureqhsomeqa. The readings vary for this verse. D*, G, Marcion, Tertullian, Ambrosiaster, and Chrysostom yield a reading with a rather trivial sense: “If at least, after we have been clothed, we would not stand naked”. The majority reading is much better (cf. the apparatus of Nestle-Aland 27 ad loc.): “If it at least is true that after we have laid aside our earthly garment we will not stand naked”.
4 kai gar oi onteV en tw skhnei stenazomen baroumenoi, ef w ou qelomen ekdusasqai all ependusasqai, ina katapoqh to qnhton upo thV zwhV. This describes not just dying, but the decisive destruction of the earthly flesh.
5 o de katergasamenoV hmaV eiV auto touto qeoV, o douV hmin ton arrabwna tou pneumatoV. That the spirit is the eschatological gift is assumed and expressly stated in the clause “the earnest of the spirit”. This earnest is bestowed in Baptism. The following verses (6-10) show how this power is made known.
6 QarrounteV oun pantote kai eidoteV oti endhmounteV en tw swmat i ekdhmoumen apo tou ke is an anacoluthon. In the face of death we do not cling to the flesh but we gladly let it go. Thus qarrein is really fearlessness in the face of this impending death. We are presently abroad, but we shall one day be at home.
7 dia pistewV gar peripatoumen ou dia eidouV The dia denotes manner. This is an anti-Gnostic stab Paul takes at his gnostic opponents.
8 qarroumen de kai eudokoumen mallon ekdhmhsai ek tou swmatoV kai endhmhsai proV ton kurion. This means that we can boldly look death in the eye and greet it fearlessly. Nothing better can happen to us!
9 dio kai filotimoumeqa, eite endhmounteV eite ekdhmounteV, euarestoi autw einai. A zeal to serve the Lord which is free of anxiety not only knows no fear of death but actually contains a tacit longing “to be with the Lord”. The path from fear of death to a desire to be with the Lord lead to indifference toward the qustion, when will death come?
10 touV gar pantaV hmaV fanerwqhnai dei emprosqen tou bhmatoV tou Cristou, ina komishtai ekastoV ta dia tou swmatoV proV a epraxen, eite agaqon eite faulon. God’s forgiving grace is that of the judge, and faith, before it turns to sight, may never lose sight of God as judge, which means nothing else than that he continually stands upon grace. Justification thus becomes a quality which one possesses, for it is something one must always receive.
11 EidoteV oun ton fobon tou kuriou anqrwpouV peiqomen, qew de pefanerwmeqa: elpizw de kai en taiV suneidhsesin umwn pefanerwsqai. In this context, “fear of the Lord” is simply a consciousness of ren
12 ou palin eautouV sunistanomen umin, alla aformhn didonteV umin kauchmatoV uper hmwn, ina echte proV touV en proswpw kaucwmenouV kai mh en kardia. Those who boast at Corinth are Paul’s rivals. They boast in some supposed external spirituality.
13 eite gar exesthmen, qew: eite swfronoumen, umin. Paul’s spiritual experiences, on the other hand, is of no concern to them. It is none of their business. Even though they accuse him of being unspiritual, he here tells them that he is, but his spirituality is real while his opponent’s is for show.
14 h gar agaph tou Cristou sunecei hmaV, krinantaV touto, oti eiV uper pantwn apeqanen: ara oi panteV apeqanon: “Of Christ” is a subjective genitive. Paul once more turns from describing his apostolic existence to describing Christian existence.
15 kai uper pantwn apeqanen ina oi zwnteV mhketi eautoiV zwsin alla tw uper autwn apoqanonti kai egerqenti. Those who share in the death of Christ will also share in his life; while those who do not share in his sufferings and therefore his death will not share in his life.
16 Wste hmeiV apo tou nun oudena oidamen kata sarka: ei kai egnwkamen kata sarka Criston, alla nun ouketi ginwskomen. Distinctions drawn between people according to the flesh are matters of indifference. Our judgement of persons can no longer be oriented to what can be encountered in the world. Christ himself can no longer be encountered in the world. He is with the Father and thus we must perceive him as he is rather than as he was.
17 wste ei tiV en Cristw, kainh ktisigonen kaina: Being in Christ is not a mystical experience but the true eschatological existence. It is being a new creature.
18 ta de panta ek tou qeou tou katallaxantoV hmaV eautw dia Cristou kai dontoV hmin thn diakonian thV katallaghV, God’s wrath is not a wrathful passion but rather the judgement which his activity spells for sinners; the way in which he must appear to sinners. How is it that God gave Christ as an offering for human sin? There are 5 views:
1- He gave Christ as a substitute for us.
2- He gave Christ as an expiation for us.
3- He gave Christ as a paschal offering for us.
4- He gave Christ as a ransom for us.
5- He gave Christ as the “Cosmic Event” which changes all history for us.
There are significant truths in all of these views.
19 wV oti qeoV hn en Cristw kosmon katallasswn eautw, mh logizomenoV autoiV ta paraptwmata autwn, kai qemenoV en hmin ton logon thV katallaghV. The Christian is a new creation and therefore free from the lordship of sin which once reigned over him.
20 uper Cristou oun presbeuomen wV tou qeou parakalountoV di hmwn: deomeqa uper Cristou, katallaghte tw qew. The old world which has died with Christ is never silenced once for all, but must continually be given over to death.
21 ton mh gnonta amartian uper hmwn amartian epoihsen, ina hmeiV genwmeqa dikaiosunh qeou en autw. The sinless one was made a sinner! So that sinners might participate in the fruit of sinlessness!!
1 SunergounteV de kai parakaloumen mh eiV kenon thn carin tou qeou dexasqai umaV The dexasqai is an ingressive aorist. The apostolic preaching can only set the hearers before an either- or, acceptance or non acceptance. The resolve, the decision, is genuine only when it persists as such; if it does not the acceptance was in vain.
2 legei gar, This is a Rabbinic formulary.
Kairw dektw ephkousa sou kai en hmera swthriaV ebohqhsa soi: idou nun kairoV euprosdektoV, idou nun hmera swthriaV. This verse describes the eschatological act of salvation which God has wrought. This “now” is present in the preaching of the Word at the very moment it encounters the hearer.
3 mhdemian en mhdeni didonteV proskophn, ina mh mwmhqh h diakonia, Paul here insists that he has “taken no false steps” which his opponents can point to in order to cast his apostolic office in a negative light. He has no interest in his ministry ebeing slandered and will not give them a chance to do so.
4 all en panti sunistanteV eautouV wV qeou diakonoi, en upomonh pollh, en qliyesin, en anagkaiV, en stenocwriaiV, Paul conducts himself as befits a servant of God. The troubles ensuing from this faithfulness are described here and in v. 5.
5 en plhgaiV, en fulakaiV, en akatastasiaiV, en kopoiV, en agrupniaiV, en nhsteiaiV,
6 en agnothti, en gnwsei, en makroqumia, en crhstothti, en pneumati agiw, en agaph anupokritw, On the catalog of virtues cf. Gal 5:22f, Rom 12:2, 14:17, Phil 4:8, Col 3:12-14. These virtues are not human, but supernatural achievements.
7 en logw alhqeiaV, en dunamei qeou: dia twn oplwn thV dikaiosunhV twn dexiwn kai aristerwn, The noun alhqeiaV is an explicative genitive.
8 dia doxhV kai atimiaV, dia dusfhmiaV kai eufhmiaV: wV planoi kai alhqe iV, One whagrant, the trickster, the seducer, is described by the noun planoV.
9 wV agnooumenoi kai epiginwskomenoi, wV apoqnhskonteV kai idou zwmen, wV paideuomenoi kai mh qanatoumenoi, This is a description of folk who are unknown. Paul, in contrast, is very well known to them; so why would they believe unknown strangers and not him?
10 wV lupoumenoi aei de caironteV, wV ptwcoi pollouV de ploutizonteV, wV mhden econteV kai panta kateconteV. There is no reference to anything concrete or special here; but rather the reference is to the gift of knowing the glory of God through Jesus.
11 To stoma hmwn anewgen proV umaV, Korinqioi, h kardia hmwn peplatuntai: Paul is not afraid to speak openly and boldly to them. He speaks the truth and he is not ashamed of it or afraid of the consequences of doing so.
12 ou stenocwreisqe en hmin, stenocwreisqe de en toiV splagcnoiV umwn: Paul is not complaining; he is rather comparing himself to the Corinthians. He will be open to them in spite of their treatment of him.
13 thn de authn antimisqian, wV teknoiV legw, platunqhte kai umeiV. This verse is nothing less than a plea for trust. he loves them, so why don’t they trust him?
[The following segment, 6:14-7:1, is a scribal insertion from a later period. We will not discuss it in our course because of its clearly secondary nature. Our discussion resumes at 7:2]
14 Mh ginesqe eterozugounteV apistoiV: tiV gar metoch dikaiosunh kai anomia; h tiV koinwnia fwti proV skotoV;
15 tiV de sumfwnhsiV Criststw meta apistou;
16 tiV de sugkataqesiV naw qeou meta eidwlwn; hmeiV gar naoV qeou esmen zwntoV: kaqwV eipen o qeoV oti Enoikhsw en autoiV kai emperipathsw, kai esomai autwn qeoV, kai autoi esontai mou laoV.
17 dio exelqate ek mesou autwn kai aforisqhte, legei kurioV, kai akaqartou mh aptesqe: kagw eisdexomai umaV,
18 kai esomai umin eiV patera, kai umeiV esesqe moi eiV uiouV kai qugateraV, legei kurioV pantokratwr.
1 tautaV oun econteV taV epaggeliaV, agaphtoi, kaqariswmen eautouV apo pantoV molusmou sarkoV kai pneumatoV, epitelounteV agiwsunhn en fobw qeou. [The scribal insertion ends here and our discussion resumes in the following verse].
2 Cwrhsate hmaV: oudena hdikhsamen, oudena efqeiramen, oudena epleonekthsamen. Paul wishes them to understand him correctly. The aorists in this verse are historical rather than epistolary. Paul is evidently concerened that his condemnation of sin, his zeal for the collection, his custom of staying with church members during his visits, and such things have been put in a bad light by his enemies.
3 proV katakrisin ou legw, proeirhka gar oti en taiV kardiaiV hmwn este eiV to sunapoqanein kai suzhn. What he has said above is in the spirit of love.
4 pollh moi parrhsia proV umaV, pollh moi kauchsiV uper umwn: peplhrwmai th paraklhsei, uperperisseuomai th cara epi pash th qliyei hmwn. On the construction pollh + the dative, see the grammars. The “affliction” he is referring to is explained in the following verse.
5 Kai gar elqontwn hmwn eiV Makedonian oudemian eschken anesin h sarx hmwn, all en panti qlibomenoi _ exwqen macai, eswqen foboi. The omission of hsan renders the description more graphic.
6 all o parakalwn touV tapeinouV parekalesen hmaV o qeoV en th parousia Titou: The “humble” are those that are low; and Paul claims to belong to that class.
7 ou monon de en th parousia autou alla kai en th paraklhsei h pareklhqh ef umin, anaggellwn hmin thn umwn epipoqhsin, ton umwn odurmon, ton umwn zhlon uper emou, wste me mallon carhnai. Or, ‘we shared in the comfort which Titus felt in letting us know of your desire for reconciliation’.
8 oti ei kai eluphsa umaV en th ep istolh, ou metamelomaiar) oti h epistolh ekeinh ei kai proV wran eluphsen umaV) Erasmus suggests translating with ‘even supposing I repented it before, which was not the case!’ Paul was tempted to wish that he had never written that which had given them pain. But the outcome showed that God wished it to be so. The best sense is to render blepw..... umeiV as epexegetical.
9 nun cairw, ouc oti eluphqhte, all oti eluphqhte eiV metanoian: eluphqhte gar kata qeon, ina en mhdeni zhmiwqhte ex hmwn. The “now” is emphatic! secundum, hic significat sensum animi Deum spectantis et sequentis. God has so worked it out that their grief was not negative, but positive in its effect.
10 h gar kata qeon luph metanoian eiV swthrian ametamelhton ergazetai: h de tou kosmou luph qanaton katergazetai.
The salvation they receive is one which no one can ever regret. 11 idou gar auto touto to kata qeon luphqhnai poshn kateirgasato umin spoudhn, alla apologian, alla aganakthsin, alla fobon, alla epipoqhsin, alla zhlon, alla ekdikhsin: en panti sunesthsate eautouV agnouV einai tw pragmati. The earnestness they now show is contrasted with their former carelessness regarding Paul. The fear described is of Paul and not God! Bengel notes that there are six accusatives preceded by alla; 2 relate to their own feelings of shame, 2 relate to Paul, and 2 relate to the offender.
12 ara ei kai egraya umin, ouc eneken tou adikhsantoV, oude eneken tou adikhqentoV, all eneken tou fanerwqhnai thn spoudhn umwn thn uper hmwn proV umaV enwpion tou qeou. The “unrighteous” man is the father of the incestuous person. euphemiam.
13 dia touto parakeklhmeqa. Epi de th paraklhsei hmwn perissoterwV mallon ecarhmen epi th cara Titou, oti anapepautai to pneuma autou apo pantwn umwn: “Consolation” is a subjective genitive; the consolation which you feel on account of the good outcome of the incident.
14 oti ei ti autw uper umwn kekauchmai ou kathscunqhn, all wV panta en alhqeia elalhsamen umin, outwV kai h kauchsiV hmwn h epi Titou alhqeia egenhqh. The “speaking” Paul refers to is his general mode of communication and is not restricted to his teaching alone. He is consistent and he does not speak with a forked tongue.
15 kai ta splagcna autou perissoterwV eiV umaV estin anamimnhskomenou thn pantwn umwn upakohn, wV meta fobou kai tromou edexasqe auton.
16 cairw oti en panti qarrw en umin. The phrase is more expressive with the connecting particle left aside. Thus, it is very emphatic.
From this point in the text Paul turns to a consideration of the offering he is collecting for the poor in Jerusalem (ch 8-9).
1 Gnwrizomen de umin, adelfoi, thn carin tou qeou thn dedomenhn en taiV ekklhsiaiV thV MakedoniaV, It must be noted that de is transitional denoting the beginning of a new subject.
2 oti en pollh dokimh qliyewV h perisseia thV caraV autwn kai h kata baqouV ptwceia autwn eperisseusen eiV to ploutoV thV aplothtoV autwn: They have abundance of all these things! They must share them and so bring encouragement and receive it when needed.
3 oti kata dunamin, marturw, kai para dunamin, auqairetoi
4 meta pollhV paraklhsewV deomenoi hmwn thn carin kai thn koinwnian thV diakoniaV thV eiV touV agiouV _
5 kai ou kaqwV hlpisamen all eautouV edwkan prwton tw kuriw kai hmin dia qelhmatoV qeou, These four verses describe adherence to the will of God. God is deserving of His people’s love; and so are His people everywhere.
6 eiV to parakalesai hmaV Titon ina kaqwV proenhrxato outwV kai epitelesh eiV umaV kai thn carin tauthn. This is a very full phrase. One receives only so that he or she can pass along the abundance of what they have. This applies to spiritual as well as material things.
7 all wsper en panti perisseuete, pistei kai logw kai gnwsei kai pash spoudh kai th ex hmwn en umin agaph, ina kai en tauth th cariti perisseuhte. Now Paul begins his exhortation. tauth is emphatic in this verse.
8 Ou kat epitaghn legw, alla dia thV eterwn spoudhV kai to thV umeteraV agaphV gnhsion dokimazwn: So that he is clear, Paul explains the meaning of what he has said in the preceding verse. He speaks not by command, but by encouragement.
9 ginwskete gar thn carin tou kuriou hmwn Ihsou Cristou, oti di umaV eptwceusen plousioV wn, ina umeiV th ekeinou ptwceia plouthshte. The participle refers to the time of the aorist verb (the governing verb).
10 kai gnwmhn en toutw didwmi: touto gar umin sumferei, oitineV ou monon to poihsai alla kai to qelein proenhrxasqe apo perusi: Or, to put it another way, “My giving my opinion, rather than commanding, is expedient for you, who have already shown yourselves to be willing to participate”. There are three steps in the collection Paul was taking to Jerusalem; 1- the wishing; 2- the doing; 3- the completion of it.
11 nuni de kai to poihsai epitelesate, opwV kaqaper h proqumia tou qelein outwV kai to epitelesai ek tou ecein. They must not just begin to act- they must bring to a conclusion what they have started. Otherwise it does no good to begin.
12 ei gar h proqumia prokeitai, kaqo ean ech euprosdektoV, ou kaqo ouk ecei. Rediness in God’s service is accepted if its exertion does not outrun its means.
13 ou gar ina alloiV anesiV, umin qliyiV: all ex isothtoV
14 en tw nun kairw to umwn perisseuma eiV to ekeinwn usterhma, ina kai to ekeinwn perisseuma genhtai eiV to umwn usterhma, opwV genhtai isothV: There should be a mutual sharing and concern among Christians. The equality brought about by this mutuality is the central concern of Paul here. That is the declaration which Paul makes in the next verse.
15 kaqwV gegraptai, O to polu ouk epleonasen, kai o to oligon ouk hlattonhsen.
16 CariV de tw qew tw donti thn authn spoudhn uper umwn en th kardia Titou, The sense refers all the way back to verse 6.
17 oti thn men paraklhsin edexa to, spoudaioteroV de u umaV. The aorist is epistolary indicating things which will have happened by the time the letter arrives.
18 sunepemyamen de met autou ton adelfon ou o epainoV en tw euaggeliw dia paswn twn ekklhsiwn We do not know who this other brother was. Some suggest Barnabas, others Luke, still others Mark, still others Trophimus and others Gaius. We simply do not have enough historical information to know for certain.
19 _ ou monon de alla kai ceirotonhqeiV upo twn ekklhsiwn sunekdhmoV hmwn sun th cariti tauth th diakonoumenh uf hmwn proV thn (autou) tou kuriou doxan kai proqumian hmwn _ This verse is an aside.
20 stellomenoi touto mh tiV hmaV mwmhshtai en th adrothti tauth th diakonoumenh uf hmwn: adrothV is from a root which means “compact, solid”.
21 pronooumen gar kala ou monon enwpion kuriou alla kai enwpion anqrwpwn. This is Paul’s general practice. He treats them no differently than anyone else.
22 sunepemyamen de autoiV ton adelfon hmwn on edokimasamen en polloiV pollakiV spoudaion onta, nuni de polu spoudaioteron pepoiqhsei pollh th eiV umaV. Still less do we know who this second brother is!
23 eite uper Titou, koinwnoV emoV kai eiV umaV sunergoV: eite adelfoi hmwn, apostoloi ekklhsiwn, doxa Cristou. This describes men whose work brings glory to Christ. This is the goal of every Christian act and every Christian person.
24 thn oun endeixin thV agaphV umwn kai hmwn kauchsewV uper umwn eiV autouV endeiknumenoi eiV pr oswpon twn ekklhsiwn.
The construction is elliptic.
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