1 Peri men gar thV diakoniaV thV eiV touV agiouV perisson moi estin to grafein umin, The men...gar connects this verse with the last one. Though the Ocrinthians were well aware of their duty towards the brethren they were somewhat remiss in putting it into practice.
2 oida gar thn proqumian umwn hn uper umwn kaucwmai Makedosin oti Acaia pareskeuastai apo perusi, kai to umwn zhloV hreqisen touV pleionaV. Bengel says “adhuc erat Paulus in Macedonia”.
3 epemya de touV adelfouV, ina mh to kauchma hmwn to uper umwn kenwqh en tw merei toutw, ina kaqwV elegon pareskeuasmenoi hte, Or, ‘that our boast in you, so ample and various, may not break down in this specific area’.
4 mh pwV ean elqwsin sun emoi MakedoneV kai eurwsin umaV aparaskeuastouV kataiscunqwmen hmeiV, ina mh legw umeiV, en th upostasei tauth. upostasiV means “foundation; matter boasted of”.
5 anagkaion oun hghsamhn parakalesai touV adelfouV ina proelqwsin eiV umaV kai prokatartiswsin thn proephggelmenhn eulogian umwn, tauthn etoimhn einai outwV wV eulogian kai mh wV pleonexian. The construction of this verse is unusual. tauthn refers back to eulogian and the infinitive must have wste supplied.
6 Touto de, o speirwn feidomenwV feidomenwV kai qerisei, kai o speirwn ep eulogiaiV ep eulogiaiV kai qerisei.
7 ekastoV kaqwV prohrhtai th kardia, mh ek luphV h ex anagkhV, ilaron gar dothn agapa o qeoV. This is an imperfect construction; epi denotes the accompanying state or circumstances.
8 dunatei de o qeoV pasan carin perisseusai eiV umaV, ina en panti pantote pasan autarkeian econteV perisseuhte eiV pan ergon agaqon, Because of its placement in the verse, dunatai is very emphatic. The amount of something also denotes that he has enough to spare. This is the very point Paul is making. If you have more than you need, you have enough to share.
9 kaqwV gegraptai, Eskorpisen, edwken toiV penhsin, h dikaiosunh autou menei eiV ton aiwna. Goodness is proved by beneficence.
10 o de epicorhgwn sporon tw speironti kai arton eiV brwsin corhghsei kai plhqunei ton sporon umwn kai auxhsei ta genhmata thV dikaiosunhV umwn: This verse assures the Corinthians that God will bring about in them the work he wishes them to do.
11 en panti ploutizomenoi eiV pasan aplothta, htiV katergazetai di hmwn eucaristian tw qew So that they would show some liberality. Being liberal is good, according to Paul! Being liberal with ones material goods brings glory to God.
12 oti h diakonia thV leitourgiaV tauthV ou monon estin prosanaplhrousa ta usterhmata twn agiwn, alla kai perisseuousa dia pollwn eucaristiwn tw qew
13 dia thV dokimhV thV diakoniaV tauthV doxazonteV ton qeon epi th upotagh thV omologiaV umwn eiV to euaggelion tou Cristou kai aplothti thV koinwniaV eiV autouV kai eiV pantaV, The participle in v. 13 is an anacoluthon.
14 kai autwn dehsei uper umwn epipoqountwn umaV dia thn uperballousan carin tou qeou ef umin. The genitive is absolute. Glory accrues to God by the prayers of the recipients who are moved with Christian love on account of the grace of God which comes from the giver.
15 cariV tw qew epi th anekdihghtw autou dwrea. Bengel remarks “Deus nobis dedit abundxternorum, quae et ipsa est inenarrabilis et fructus habet consimiles”.
1 AutoV de egw PauloV parakalw umaV dia thV prauthtoV kai epieikeiaV tou Cristou, oV kata proswpon men tapeinoV en umin, apwn de qarrw eiV umaV: de marks the transition to a new subject and autoV points on to the person of Paul. The friendly terms which are indicated at the end of the 9th chapter have somehow been disturbed by the time Paul begins to write this segment of the letter. Evidently news arrived from Corinth that the opponents of Paul had roused themselves against him once more. He addresses these opponents in the clearest and sharpest of terms. Paul first calls on them to remember that just as Jesus was gentle but firm, so will he be. So while his adversaries attempted to lessen the weight of his writings he will reinforce them.
2 deomai de to mh parwn qarrhsai th pepoiqhsei h logizomai tolmhsai epi tinaV touV logizomenouV hmaV wV kata sarka peripatountaV.
3 en sarki gar peripatounteV ou kata sarka strateuomeqa The gar here shows the reason for the “prayers” mentioned above. Those who accuse Paul of living for the flesh will find that he does not war in the flesh but in the spirit, with powerful spiritual weapons.
4 ta gar opla thV strateiaV hmwn ou sarkika alla dunata tw qew proV kaqairesin ocurwmatwn logismouV kaqairounteV This verse expands the previous.
5 kai pan uywma epairomenon kata thV gnwsewV tou qeou, kai aicmalwtizonteV pan nohma eiV thn upakohn tou Cristou, Paul is not describing here intellectual subjection but the subjection of the will to Christ.
6 kai en etoimw econteV ekdikhsai pasan parakohn, otan plhrwqh umwn h upakoh. They have been given every opportunity to join the ranks of the obedient. Will they?
7 Ta kata proswpon blepete. ei tiV pepoiqen eautw Cristou einai, touto logizesqw palin ef eautou oti kaqwV autoV Cristou outwV kai hmeiV. The adversaries of the Apostle boast of being closerast this is!
8 ean (te) gar perissoteron ti kauchswmai peri thV exousiaV hmwn, hV edwken o kurioV eiV oikodomhn kai ouk eiV kaqairesin umwn, ouk aiscunqhsomai, The subjunctive is not concessive but hypothetical.
9 ina mh doxw wV an ekfobein umaV dia twn epistolwn: ina mh doxa is much better understood as a subjective = “I say this because I wish not to seem...” The mention of 2 letters before refer to 1 Corinthians and a letter now lost.
10 oti, Ai epistolai men, fhsin, bareiai kai iscurai, h de parousia tou swmatoV asqenhV kai o logoV exouqenhmenoV. He did not speak as a professional rhetorician; he spoke as an apostle. He did not use the flowery language of Cicero; he spoke plainly in the language of the prophets.
11 touto logizesqw o toioutoV, oti oioi esmen tw logw di epistolwn aponteV, toioutoi kai paronteV tw ergw. The introduction of the verse without and connecting particle gives force and emphasis.
12 Ou gar tolmwmen egkrinai h sugkrinai eautouV tisin twn eautouV sunistanontwn: alla autoi en eautoiV eautouV metrounteV kai sugkrinonteV eautouV eautoiV ou suniasin. The apostle does not oppose their ignorance concerning his work; he opposes the ignorance of their self evaluation!
13 hmeiV de ouk eiV ta ametra kauchsomeqa, alla kata to metron tou kanonoV ou emerisen hmin o qeoV metrou, efikesqai acri kai umwn. eiV with and adjective and the article is used to signify the “extent to which...”. There is no limit to the delusion of human self opinion
14 u gar wV mh efiknoumenoi eiV umaV uperekteinomen eautouV, acri gar kai umwn efqasamen en tw euaggeliw tou Cristou: The present text demonstrates the “allotment” of the field of apostolic work.
15 ouk eiV ta ametra kaucwmenoi en allotrioiV kopoiV, elpida de econteV auxanomenhV thV pistewV umwn en umin megalunqhnai kata ton kanona hmwn eiV perisseian, In apposition with ou gar in verse 14 and extending the thought.
16 eiV ta uperekeina umwn euaggelisasqai, ouk en allotriw kanoni eiV ta etoima kauchsasqai.
17 O de kaucwmenoV en kuriw kaucasqw: In contrast to this boasting in themselves in anothers line which was the practice of his adversaries.
18 ou gar o eauton sunistanwn, ekeinoV estin dokimoV, alla on o kurioV sunisthsin. ekeinoV brings out the distinction of the man who is “worthy”.
1 Ofelon aneicesqe mou mikron ti afrosunhV: alla kai anecesqe mou.
2 zhlw gar umaV qeou zhlw, hrmosamhn gar umaV eni andri parqenon agnhn parasthsai tw Cristw: When Jewish women married (in the era of this letter) they were required to state whether or not they were virgins or "pure". If not, they could be dismissed on the spot. Cf. Nu 5:28.
3 foboumai de mh pwV, wV o ofiV exhpathsen Euan en th panourgia autou, fqarh ta nohmata umwn apo thV aplothtoV (kai thV agnothtoV) thV eiV ton Criston. Cf. Apoc. Baruch 48:42-43, Rom 5:15.
4 ei men gar o ercomenoV allon Ihsoun khrussei on ouk ekhruxamen, h pneuma eteron lambanete o ouk elabete, h euaggelion eteron o ouk edexasqe, kalwV anecesqe.
5 logizomai gar mhden usterhkenai twn uperlian apostolwn:
6 ei de kai idiwthV tw logw, all ou th gnwsei, all en panti fanerwsanteV en pasin eiV umaV. On the use of idiwthV see I Cor 14:16. Those who abandon the truth of the Gospel and follow another are “idiots” in the purest sense of the word.
7 H amartian epoihsa emauton tapeinwn ina umeiV uywqhte, oti dwrean to tou qeou euaggelion euhggelisamhn umin; Cf. Rom 6:23.
8 allaV ekklhsiaV esulhsa labwn oywnion proV thn umwn diakonian,
9 kai parwn proV umaV kai usterhqeiV ou katenarkhsa ouqenoV: to gar usterhma mou prosaneplhrwsan oi adelfoi elqonteV apo MakedoniaV: kai en panti abarh emauton umin ethrhsa kai thrhsw.
10 estin alhqeia Cristou en emoi oti h kauchsiV auth ou fraghsetai eiV eme en toiV klimasin thV AcaiaV.
11 dia ti; oti ouk agapw umaV; o qeoV oiden.
12 O de poiw kai poihsw, ina ekkoyw thn aformhn twn qelontwn aformhn, ina en w kaucwntai eureqwsin kaqwV kai hmeiV.
13 oi gar todolioi, metaschmatizomenoi eiV apostolouV Cristou.
14 kai ou qauma, autoV gar o SatanaV metaschmatizetai eiV aggelon fwtoV:
That Satan appears in a number of disguises is evident from Mt 4:1ff. Cf. also in the pseudepigraphic material Enoch 19:1, Life of Adam and Eve 9, Apoc. Moses 17. The purpose of this disguise is to trick the naive and the foolish who live without the truth of the Gospel. Paul thus warns his opponents that they are very near to abandoning Christ and adopting Satan.
15 ou mega oun ei kai oi diakonoi autou metaschmatizontai wV diakonoi dikaiosunhV, wn to teloV estai kata ta erga autwn.
16 Palin legw, mh tiV me doxh afrona einai: ei de mh ge, kan wV afrona dexasqe me, ina kagw mikron ti kauchswmai.
17 o lalw ou kata kurion lalw, all wV en afrosunh, en tauth th upostasei thV kauchsewV.
18 epei polloi kaucwntai kata sarka, kagw kauchsomai.
19 hdewV gar anecesqe twn afronwn fronimoi onteV:
20 anecesqe gar ei tiV umaV katadouloi, ei tiV katesqiei, ei tiV lambanei, ei tiV epairetai, ei tiV eiV proswpon umaV derei.
21 kata atimian legw, wV oti hmeiV hsqenhkamen: en w d an tiV tolma, en afrosunh legw, tolmw kagw.
22 Ebraioi eisin; kagw. Israhlitai eisin; kagw. sperma Abraam eisin; kagw.
Those who boast of their pedigree have nothing on Paul. He also is a Jew. He also knows the truth. He also knows Jesus. Their “one upmanship” will get them nowhere with him because he knows what he is talking about much more than they do. Is this boasting? No. It is simply an effort to prove that they are mistaken in their estimation of him.
23 diakonoi Cristou eisin; parafronwn lalw, uper egw: en kopoiV perissoterwV, en fulakaiV perissoterwV, en plhgaiV uperballontwV, en qanatoiV pollakiV:
24 upo Ioudaiwn pentakiV tesserakonta para mian elabon, The sufferings Paul has endured are more than most. Yet he has remained faithful. So the attack of his opponents will not hinder him from his work either.
25 triV erabdisqhn, apax eliqasqhn, triV enauaghsa, nucqhmeron en tw buqw pepoihka:
26 odoiporiaiV pollakiV, kindunoiV potamwn, kindunoiV lhstwn, kindunoiV ek genouV, kindunoiV ex eqnwn, kindunoiV en polei, kindunoiV en erhmia, kindunoiV en qalassh, kindunoiV en yeudadelfoiV,
27 kopw kai mocqw, en agrupniaiV pollakiV, en limw kai diyei, en nhsteiaiV pollakiV, en yucei kai gumnothti:
28 cwriV twn parektoV h epistasiV moi h kaq hmeran, h merimna paswn twn ekklhsiwn.
29 tiV asqenei, kai ouk asqenw; tiV skandalizetai, kai ouk egw puroumai;
30 Ei kaucasqai dei, ta thV asqeneiaV mou kauchsomai.
31 o qeoV kai pathr tou kuriou Ihsou oiden, o wn euloghtoV eiV touV aiwnaV, oti ou yeudomai. Paul ends this segment of his diatribe with a well placed hymn of praise to God. No matter what people did, Paul kept his eyes fixed on God. He was not distracted from his work by anything.
32 en Damaskw o eqnarchV Areta tou basilewV efrourei thn polin Damaskhnwn piasai me, This Aretas was Aretas IV who reigned from 9 BC to 40 AD. An inscription was found bearing his name in Hebrew which describes him as the King of the Nabateans. Thmu jr wfbn ilm ttrj.
33 kai dia quridoV en sarganh ecalasqhn dia tou teicouV kai exefugon taV ceiraV autou. Cf. Ar. 9.5.
1 Kaucasqai dei: ou sumferon men, eleusomai de eiV optasiaV kai apokaluyeiV kuriou.
2 oida anqrwpon en Cristw pro etwn dekatessarwn _ eite en swmati ouk oida, eite ektoV tou swmatoV ouk oida, o qeoV oiden _ arpagenta ton toiouton ewV tritou ouranou. This manner of speaking sounds to us like he is making reference to another; but in point of fact he is clearly talking about himself. The idea of visionary experiences was common in first century Judaism. Ethiopic Enoch is an excellent example of this. The “3rd” heaven is, in Judaism, that which is closest in proximity to God. Cf. I Ki 8:27. Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai, a near contemporary of Paul, spoke of 7 heavens.
3 kai oida ton toiouton anqrwpon _ eite en swmati eite cwriV tou swmatoV ouk oida, o qeoV oiden _
4 oti hrpagh eiV ton paradeison kai hkousen arrhta rhmata a ouk exon anqrwpw lalhsai. “Paradise” was the “Garden of Eden”. In Rabbinic literature of the period this term is used of the place people go between death and the final resurrection. Cf. Luke 23:43. In this place words are uttered which cannot be repeated on earth.
5 uper tou toioutou kauchsomai, uper de emautou ou kauchsomai ei mh en taiV asqeneiaiV.
6 ean gar qelhsw kauchsasqai, ouk esomai afrwn, alhqeian gar erw: feidomai de, mh tiV eiV eme logishtai uper o blepei me h akouei (ti) ex emou
7 kai th uperbolh twn apokaluyewn. dio, ina mh uperairwmai, edoqh moi skoloy th sarki, aggeloV Satana, ina me kolafizh, ina mh uperairwmai. The thorn in Paul’s flesh was an irritation. Something bothered Paul, and in the context of the letter we can most likely suppose that it was the behavior of his Corinthian opponents. They were a pain in the “neck”, to use our lingo. In fact, Paul goes so far as to call his opponents the “messengers of Satan”! This is fairly harsh treatment of ones opponents. Yet Paul was not concerned so much about the attack on his person as he was on the attack on the Gospel which he preached.
8 uper toutou triV ton kurion parekalesa ina aposth ap emou: uper is used with the genitive meaning ‘for, on behalf of’.
9 kai eirhken moi, Arkei soi h cariV mou: h gar dunamiV en asqeneia teleitai. hdista oun mallon kauchsomai en taiV asqeneiaiV mou, ina episkhnwsh ep eme h dunamiV tou Cristou. The comparative is heightened as in the classical language by the addition of some form of polu.
10 dio eudokw en asqeneiaiV, en ubresin, en anagkaiV, en diwgmoiV kai stenocwriaiV, uper Cristou: otan gar asqenw, tote dunatoV eimi.
11 Gegona afrwn: umeiV me hnagkasate: egw gar wfeilon uf umwn sunistasqai. ouden gar usterhsa twn uperlian apostolwn, ei kai ouden eimi: Paul changes his tone here in an amazing way by means of prodiorthosis (an anticipatory correction) when he feels that he is about to give offense.
12 ta men shmeia tou apostolou kateirgasqh en umin en pash upomonh, shmeioiV te kai terasin kai dunamesin.
13 ti gar estin o hsswqhte uper taV loipaV ekklhsiaV, ei mh oti autoV egw ou katenarkhsa umwn; carisasqe moi thn adikian tauthn. Adjectives are sometimes used alone instead of as modifiers but in such a way that the substantive is mentally supplied or implied in the text. This is what has happened in v. 13’s use of triton. The same is true of v. 14 below.
14 Idou triton touto etoimwV ecw elqein proV umaV, kai ou katanarkhsw: ou gar zhtw ta umwn alla umaV, ou gar ofeilei ta tekna toiV goneusin qhsaurizein, alla o i goneiV toiV teknoiV.
15 egw de hdista dapanhsw kai ekdapanhqhsomai uper twn yucwn umwn. ei perissoterwV umaV agapw(n), hsson agapwmai; The comparative perissoterwV is exceptionally emphatic.
16 estw de, egw ou katebarhsa umaV: alla uparcwn panourgoV dolw umaV elabon.
17 mh tina wn apestalka proV umaV, di autou epleonekthsa umaV; The anacoluthon here is resumed by the pronoun.
18 parekalesa Titon kai sunapesteila ton adelfon: mhti epleonekthsen umaV TitoV; ou tw autw pneumati periepathsamen; ou toiV autoiV icnesin;
19 Palai dokeite oti umin apologoumeqa; katenanti qeou en Cristw laloumen: ta de panta, agaphtoi, uper thV umwn oikodomhV. The perfective present appears only with a very limited number of special verbs. It is unusual and very emphatic.
20 foboumai gar mh pwV elqwn ouc oiouV qelw eurw umaV, kagw eureqw umin oion ou qelete, mh pwV eriV, zhloV, qumoi, eriqeiai, katalaliai, yiqurismoi, fusiwseiV, akatastasiai: The negative in a subordinate clause expresses apprehension. Paul continues to be apprehensive because of the treatment he has received from them.
21 mh palin elqontoV mou tapeinwsh me o qeoV mou proV umaV, kai penqhsw pollouV twn prohmarthkotwn kai mh metanohsantwn epi th akaqarsia kai porneia kai aselgeia h epraxan. The genitive absolute is here employed in the normal way, even though the case is actually accusative (making it, in sum, an accusative absolute!).
1 Triton touto ercomai proV umaV: epi stomatoV duo marturwn kai triwn staqhsetai pan rhma. He had already been there twice; so he warns them that he will come this time with a stick! The stick was used in education to keep the student at the task.
2 proeirhka kai prolegw wV parwn to deuteron kai apwn nun toiV prohmarthkosin kai toiV loipoiV pasin, oti ean elqw eiV to palin ou feisomai, oV parwn = “as when”. The conditional sentence here is a third class conditional.
3 epei dokimhn zhteite tou en emoi lalountoV Cristou: oV eiV umaV ouk asqenei alla dunatei en umin. He will show them as clearly as possible that Christ does indeed speak through him. There will be no doubt of it in their minds when he leaves them!
4 kai gar estaurwqh ex asqeneiaV, alla zh ek dunamewV qeou. kai gar hmeiV asqenoumen en autw, alla zhsomen sun autw ek dunamewV qeou eiV umaV. Paul’s sense of his union with Christ is overwhelming.
5 EautouV peirazete ei este en th pistei, eautouV dokimazete: h ouk epiginwskete eautouV oti IhsouV CristoV en umin; ei mhti adokimoi este. Paul challenges them to test themselves, whether they are really in the faith or not.
6 elpizw de oti gnwsesqe oti hmeiV ouk esmen adokimoi. Such a testing will clearly show them that Paul is not a reprobate. The best way for a wavering Christian to stop wavering is to draw closer to Christ.
7 eucomeqa de proV ton qeon mh poihsai umaV kakon mhden, ouc ina hmeiV dokimoi fanwmen, all ina umeiV to kalon poihte, hmeiV de wV adokimoi wmen. He has no desire to exercise his authority; for he is no authoritarian. But he will do whatever is necessary to return them to the truth.
8 ou gar dunameqa ti kata thV alhqeiaV, alla uper thV alhqeiaV. We can hinder the truth by evil deeds; but in the end the truth will win the war. lain cairomen gar otan hmeiV asqenwmen, umeiV de dunatoi hte: touto kai eucomeqa, thn umwn katartisin. He is no Jonah. He will not rejoice if they are destroyed due to rebellion against God.
10 dia touto tauta apwn grafw, ina parwn mh apotomwV crhswmai kata thn exousian hn o kurioV edwken moi, eiV oikodomhn kai ouk eiV kaqairesin.
11 Loipon, adelfoi, cairete, katartizesqe, parakaleisqe, to auto froneite, eirhneuete, kai o qeoV thV agaphV kai eirhnhV estai meq umwn.
12 aspasasqe allhlouV en agiw filhmati. aspazontai umaV oi agioi panteV. The holy kiss was practiced in the Church until the pagans began to make unjust accusations against Christians because of it. It was then abandond in the West though it is still practiced in the East.
13 H cariV tou kuriou Ihsou Cristou kai h agaph tou qeou kai h koinwnia tou agiou pneumatoV meta pantwn umwn. This is the fullest benediction of any of Paul’s writings. It is proper here for it summarizes his wish for the Church most clearly.
Copyright © Quartz Hill School of Theology. All Rights Reserved.