a0gw- I lead
a0kouw- I hear
blepw- I see
e0xw- I have
luw- I loose, I destroy
2. Second Declension Nouns
douloj- slave, servant
a0postoloj- apostle, messenger
ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary words above. Note that list 1 are verbs, and list 2 are nouns of the second declension.
There are three ways of classifying nouns in Greek. The second declension (class) are the most frequent in the New Testament, so it is with these that we begin our study of nouns.
The following endings are attached to the noun root to obtain the endings of the second declension:
|-w|||-oij||locative, instrumental, dative (note the w| subscript)|
For example, the stem of a0nqrwpoj is a0nqrwp- to which are added the endings of the second declension as follows:
ASSIGNMENT: Decline (or add the appropriate endings, as above) all the nouns in the vocabulary at the beginning of lesson 4.
Now, we must briefly discuss the meanings of these endings:
The Nominative case (or ending) is the case that the subject of the sentence is found in.
The Genitive case is the case used to describe ownership of something. For example, oi0kou a0nqrwpou means "a man's house" or "a house of a man".
The Locative case indicates where something is located. "oi0kw| " means "in a house"
The Instrumental case indicates the means by which something is. "oi0kw| " means "by means of a house".
The Dative case indicates the direction of something. "oi0kw| " means "to a house".
The astute reader will notice that the Locative, Instrumental and Dative cases are all the same in form. The correct translation can only be gained by means of the context.
The Accusative case shows limits. "oi0kon" means "the house" (only).
The Vocative (which occurs only in the singular) is the case of address. "a0nqrwpe" means "man!"
Accurate translation means that the translator must know these forms and their meanings.
ASSIGMENT: Translate the following sentences:
a0nqrwpoj ginwskei ton nomon
pempete dwra tw| i&erw|
lambanw dwra karpou kai a0rton
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