Lesson 23: Perfect Active and Middle Indicative

The Perfect Active Indicative of luw is:

leluka- I have loosed lelukamen- we have loosed
lelukaj- you have loosed lelukate- you have loosed
leluken- he, she, it has loosed lelukasi- they have loosed

The perfect middle indicative of luw is:

lelumai- I have loosed myself lelumeqa- we have loosed ourselves
lelusai- you have loosed yourself lelusqe- you have loosed yourselves
lelutai- he has loosed himself leluntai- they have loosed themselves

NOTE: The perfect is formed by adding a "reduplicating augment" to the stem. This reduplicating augment is formed by taking the first letter of the stem (or in certain cases a similar sounding letter) and adding it to e at the front of the stem. Then, after the stem the endings are added, as before. For instance: le+lu+mai ; the reduplication is l added to e, added to the stem lu, and then the ending mai, etc. See, it's very simple!

The perfect tense is used to show action completed in the past, but with results that last into the present. For example: leluka = I have loosed (and it remains loosed!). This tense is VERY important theologically, as the student will learn from translating it correctly in the New Testament.

ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the conjugations above.

The perfect active participle of luw is:

Singular

Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. lelukwj lelukuia lelukoj
Gen. lelukotoj lelukuiaj lelukotoj
L.I.D. lelukoti lelukuia lelukoti
Acc. lelukota lelukuian lelukoj

Plural

Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. lelukotej lelukuiai lelukota
Gen. lelukotwn lelukuiwn lelukotwn
L.I.D. lelukosi lelukuiaij lelukosi
Acc. lelukotaj lelukuiaj lelukota

ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the perfect active participle abov perfect middle participle of luw is:

Singular

Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. lelumenoj lelumenh lelumenon
Gen. lelumenou lelumenhj lelumenou
L.I.D. lelumenw lelumenh lelumenw
Acc. lelumenon lelumenhn lelumenon

Plural

Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. lelumenoi lelumenai lelumena
Gen. lelumenwn lelumenwn lelumenwn
L.I.D. lelumenoij lelumenaij lelumenoij
Acc. lelumenouj lelumenaj lelumena

ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the perfect middle participle above, and translate the following sentences.

1. ta gegrammena e0n tw bibliw tou nomou e0stin a0gaqa

2. xariti e0ste seswsmenoi dia pistewj

3. oi9 bebaptismenoi maqhtai ei0sin e0n th e0kklhsia