L. Scientific method
"That method for describing and explaining phenomena which incorporates the principles of empirical verification, operational definition, controlled observation, statistical generalization, and empirical confirmation."
1. Aristotle developed the following methods
a. induction
Induction is reasoning from the particular to the general. e.g.: simple enumeration Fact One, Fact Two, Fact Three... leads to Generalization
b. deduction
Deduction is reasoning from the general to the particular. E.G.: if all cases of P imply Q, then this case of P implies Q.
c. observation
The use of empirical evidence. Instead of simply imagining what water does at certain temperatures, you go out and see what happens to it.
d. classification
The use of definition.
2. The method
It has become a series of steps varied according to the particular discipline or problem at hand. John Dewey, in his book HOW WE THINK described it as reflective thinking and enumerated five steps in problem solving as the pattern of inquiry or the scientific method:
a. awareness of the problem -- the indeterminate situation.
b. clarification of the indeterminate situation as a problematic one by definition, observation and the classification of facts
c. formulation of a possible solution -- a hypothesis.
d. deduction of verifiable or testable consequences
e. verification and reformulation as necessary leading to acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis and/or solution of the problem.