B. Theory of Knowledge

The study of the theory of knowledge is called epistemology. It comprises the systematic study of the 1) nature, 2) sources and 3) validity of knowledge.

Epistimology asks the question: "Do we know an independent world or merely our experience?" The answers reveal two kinds of theories of knowledge, which may be grouped with regard to their degree of emphasis on the subjectivity or objectivity of knowledge.

1. Subjectivistic theories of knowledge

These theories answer the question of epistemology thus: "No, we don't know an independent world as the cause of our ideas. We cannot get beyond our experience or ideas, and we cannot speak of a knower experiencing them."

2. Objectivistic theories of knowledge

These theories answer the question of epistemology thus: "Yes, we do know an idependent world of material objects or of transcendent ideas."

C. Kinds of knowledge

1. Knowledge by acquaintance

Knowledge by acquaintance is the direct apprehension of: a) sense data, b) objects of memory, c) internal states, and d) ourselves.

2. Knowledge by description

Knowledge by description is the mediated or thought out knowledge of a) other selves, and b) physical objects (as constructs and not sense data).