Courses

Romans 1 - The Greek Text of Romans: A Text Critical Study


In the text that follows, the textual base is the edition of Westcott and Hort. The student is required to collate (compare) this text with the text of Nestle-Aland 27. To do this the student need merely compare, word for word, the text found following and the text printed in Nestle, noting all variations, no matter how small. I do no comment on every variant in what follows; only the more significant. But, again, the student is required to note every variant.


1:1 PAULOS DOULOS IHSOU XRISTOU KLHTOS APOSTOLOS AFWRISMENOS EIS EUAGGELION QEOU

Textual note: In many manuscripts the order is "Jesus Christ"; some have "Christ Jesus". Interestingly, in Paul's early letters the order is "Jesus Christ" while in his later letters it is "Christ Jesus".

The evidence is fairly well distributed on the readings here. The internal criteria must take precedence so that the reading in the text above is considered more likely original.

2 O PROEPHGGEILATO DIA TWN PROFHTWN AUTOU EN GRAFAIS AGIAIS

3 PERI TOU UIOU AUTOU TOU GENOMENOU EK SPERMATOS DAUID KATA SARKA

4 TOU ORISQENTOS UIOU QEOU EN DUNAMEI KATA PNEUMA AGIWSUNHS EC ANASTASEWS NEKRWN IHSOU XRISTOU TOU KURIOU HMWN

5 DI OU ELABOMEN XARIN KAI APOSTOLHN EIS UPAKOHN PISTEWS EN PASIN TOIS EQNESIN UPER TOU ONOMATOS AUTOU

6 EN OIS ESTE KAI UMEIS KLHTOI IHSOU XRISTOU

7 PASIN TOIS OUSIN EN RWMH AGAPHTOIS QEOU KLHTOIS AGIOIS XARIS UMIN KAI EIRHNH APO QEOU PATROS HMWN KAI KURIOU IHSOU XRISTOU

Textual note: G, 1739, 1908, It(g), and Origen omit "in Rome". The majority of ancient texts contain it and it is therefore retained here.

8 PRWTON MEN EUXARISTW TW QEW MOU DIA IHSOU XRISTOU PERI PANTWN UMWN OTI H PISTIS UMWN KATAGGELLETAI EN OLW TW KOSMW

9 MARTUS GAR MOU ESTIN O QEOS W LATREUW EN TW PNEUMATI MOU EN TW EUAGGELIW TOU UIOU AUTOU WS ADIALEIPTWS MNEIAN UMWN POIOUMAI

10 PANTOTE EPI TWN PROSEUXWN MOU DEOMENOS EI PWS HDH POTE EUODWQHSOMAI EN TW QELHMATI TOU QEOU ELQEIN PROS UMAS

11 EPIPOQW GAR IDEIN UMAS INA TI METADW XARISMA UMIN PNEUMATIKON EIS TO STHRIXQHNAI UMAS

12 TOUTO DE ESTIN SUMPARAKLHQHNAI EN UMIN DIA THS EN ALLHLOIS PISTEWS UMWN TE KAI EMOU

13 OI OTI POLLAKIS PROEQEMHN ELQEIN PROS UMAS KAI EKWLUQHN AXRI TOU DEURO INA TINA KARPON SXW KAI EN UMIN KAQWS KAI EN TOIS LOIPOIS EQNESIN

Textual note: "I do not wish" is supported by h26, ), A, B, C, D, K, P, Y, 88, 614, 1739 and several of the versions. Its omission or smoothing is secondary.

14 ELLHSIN TE KAI BARBAROIS SOFOIS TE KAI ANOHTOIS OFEILETHS EIMI

15 OUTWS TO KAT EME PROQUMON KAI UMIN TOIS EN RWMH EUAGGELISASQAI

Textual note: two minor manuscripts omit "in Rome" in order to make the letter more widely applicable. This omission is unjustified.

16 OU GAR EPAISXUNOMAI TO EUAGGELION DUNAMIS GAR QEOU ESTIN EIS SWTHRIAN PANTI TW PISTEUONTI IOUDAIW TE [PRWTON] KAI ELLHNI lain

Textual note: "first" is absent from B (the textual basis of the next included in this course). There seems no reason to delete it other than the fact that Marcion did so in his text in order to remove priority from the Jews.

17 DIKAIOSUNH GAR QEOU EN AUTW APOKALUPTETAI EK PISTEWS EIS PISTIN KAQWS GEGRAPTAI O DE DIKAIOS EK PISTEWS ZHSETAI

18 APOKALUPTETAI GAR ORGH QEOU AP OURANOU EPI PASAN ASEBEIAN KAI ADIKIAN ANQRWPWN TWN THN ALHQEIAN EN ADIKIA KATEXONTWN

19 DIOTI TO GNWSTON TOU QEOU FANERON ESTIN EN AUTOIS O QEOS GAR AUTOIS EFANERWSEN

20 TA GAR AORATA AUTOU APO KTISEWS KOSMOU TOIS POIHMASIN NOOUMENA KAQORATAI H TE AIDIOS AUTOU DUNAMIS KAI QEIOTHS EIS TO EINAI AUTOUS ANAPOLOGHTOUS

21 DIOTI GNONTES TON QEON OUX WS QEON EDOCASAN H HUXARISTHSAN ALL EMATAIWQHS AN EN TOIS DIALOGISMOIOS AUTWN KARDIA

22 FASKONTES EINAI SOFOI EMWRANQHSAN

23 KAI HLLACAN THN DOCAN TOU AFQARTOU QEOU EN OMOIWMATI EIKONOS FQARTOU ANQRWPOU KAI PETEINWN KAI TETRAPODWN KAI ERPETWN

24 DIO PAREDWKEN AUTOUS O QEOS EN TAIS EPIQUMIAIS TWN KARDIWN AUTWN EIS AKAQARSIAN TOU ATIMAZESQAI TA SWMATA AUTWN EN AUTOIS

25 OITINES METHLLACAN THN ALHQEIAN TOU QEOU EN TW YEUDEI KAI ESEBASQHSAN KAI ELATREUSAN TH KTISEI PARA TON KTISANTA OS ESTIN EULOGHTOS EIS TOUS AIWNAS AMHN

26 DIA TOUTO PAREDWKEN AUTOUS O QEOS EIS PAQH ATIMIAS AI TE GAR QHLEIAI AUTWN METHLLACAN THN FUSIKHN XRHSIN EIS THN PARA FUSIN

27 OMOIWS TE KAI OI ARSENES AFENTES THN FUSIKHN XRHSIN THS QHLEIAS ECEKAUQHSAN EN TH ORECEI AUTWN EIS ALLHLOUS ARSENES EN ARSESIN THN ASXHMOSUNHN KATERGAZOMENOI KAI THN ANTIMISQIAN HN EDEI THS PLANHS AUTWN EN EAUTOIS APOLAMBANONTES

28 KAI KAQWS OUK EDOKIMASAN TON QEON EXEIN EN EPIGNWSEI PAREDWKEN AUTOUS O QEOS EIS ADOKIMON NOUN POIEIN TA MH KAQHKONTA

29 PEPLHRWMENOUS PASH ADIKIA PONHRIA PLEONECIA KAKIA MESTOUS FQONOU FONOU ERIDOS DOLOU KAKOHQEIAS YIQURISTAS

Textual note: The TR's insertion of "fornication" rests on no textual base and should be ignored.

30 KATALALOUS QEOSTUGEIS UBRISTAS UPERHFANOUS ALAZONAS EFEURETAS KAKWN GONEUSIN APEIQEIS

31 ASUNETOUS ASUNQETOUS ASTORGOUS ANELEHMONAS

Textual note: aspondoj is inserted here in TR on the basis of 2 Tim 3:2-5.

32 OITINES TO DIKAIWMA TOU QEOU EPIGNONTES OTI OI TA TOIAUTA PRASSONTES ACIOI QANATOU EISIN OU MONON AUTA POIOUSIN A LLA KAI SUNEUDOKOUSIN