Courses

Romans 3 - The Greek Text of Romans: A Text Critical Study


In the text that follows, the textual base is the edition of Westcott and Hort. The student is required to collate (compare) this text with the text of Nestle-Aland 27. To do this the student need merely compare, word for word, the text found following and the text printed in Nestle, noting all variations, no matter how small. I do no comment on every variant in what follows; only the more significant. But, again, the student is required to note every variant.


3:1 TI OUN TO PERISSON TOU IOUDAIOU H TIS H WFELEIA THS PERITOMHS

2 POLU KATA PANTA TROPON PRWTON MEN [GAR] OTI EPISTEUQHSAN TA LOGIA TOU QEOU

3 TI GAR EI HPISTHSAN TINES MH H APISTIA AUTWN THN PISTIN TOU QEOU KATARGHSEI

4 MH GENOITO GINESQW DE O QEOS ALHQHS PAS DE ANQRWPOS YEUSTHS KAQAPER GEGRAPTAI OPWS AN DIKAIWQHS EN TOIS LOGOIS SOU KAI NIKHSEIS EN TW KRINESQAI SE

5 EI DE H ADIKIA HMWN QEOU DIKAIOSUNHN SUNISTHSIN TI EROUMEN MH ADIKOS O QEOS O EPIFERWN THN ORGHN KATA ANQRWPON LEGW

6 MH GENOITO EPEI PWS KRINEI O QEOS TON KOSMON

7 EI DE H ALHQEIA TOU QEOU EN TW EMW YEUSMATI EPERISSEUSEN EIS THN DOCAN AUTOU TI ETI KAGW WS AMARTWLOS KRINOMAI

TR has ei gar for ei de. This is unnecessary. The text here balances well with verse 5.

8 KAI MH KAQWS BLASFHMOUMEQA KAI KAQWS FASIN TINES HMAS LEGEIN OTI POIHSWMEN TA KAKA INA ELQH TA AGAQA WN TO KRIMA ENDIKON ESTIN

9 TI OUN PROEXOMEQA OU PANTWS PROHTIASAMEQA GAR IOUDAIOUS TE KAI ELLHNAS PANTAS UF AMARTIAN EINAI

10 KAQWS GEGRAPTAI OTI OUK ESTIN DIKAIOS OUDE EIS

11 s20 OUK ESTIN SUNIWN OUK ESTIN EKZHTWN TON QEON

12 PANTES ECEKLINAN AMA HXREWQHSAN OUK ESTIN POIWN XRHSTOTHTA OUK ESTIN EWS ENOS

The double occurance of ouk estin has led some to believe that it is a scribal reduplication. However, the text makes sense just as it is.

13 TAFOS ANEWGMENOS O LARUGC AUTWN TAIS GLWSSAIS AUTWN EDOLIOUSAN IOS ASPIDWN UPO TA XEILH AUTWN

14 WN TO STOMA ARAS KAI PIKRIAS GEMEI

15 OCEIS OI PODES AUTWN EKXEAI AIMA

16 SUNTRIMMA KAI TALAIPWRIA EN TAIS ODOIS AUTWN

17 KAI ODON EIRHNHS OUK EGNWSAN

18 OUK ESTIN FOBOS QEOU APENANTI TWN OFQALMWN AUTWN

19 OIDAMEN DE OTI OSA O NOMOS LEGEI TOIS EN TW NOMW LALEI INA PAN STOMA FRAGH KAI UPODIKOS GENHTAI PAS O KOSMOS TW QEW r 20 U OU DIKAIWQHSETAI PASA SARC ENWPION AUTOU DIA GAR NOMOU EPIGNWSIS AMARTIAS

21 NUNI DE XWRIS NOMOU DIKAIOSUNH QEOU PEFANERWTAI MARTUROUMENH UPO TOU NOMOU KAI TWN PROFHTWN

22 DIKAIOSUNH DE QEOU DIA PISTEWS [IHSOU] XRISTOU EIS PANTAS TOUS PISTEUONTAS OU GAR ESTIN DIASTOLH

The TR reads both eij pantaj and epi pantaj. This reduplication is unnecessary.

23 PANTES GAR HMARTON KAI USTEROUNTAI THS DOCHS TOU QEOU

24 DIKAIOUMENOI DWREAN TH AUTOU XARITI DIA THS APOLUTRWSEWS THS EN XRISTW IHSOU

25 ON PROEQETO O QEOS ILASTHRION DIA PISTEWS EN TW AUTOU AIMATI EIS ENDEICIN THS DIKAIOSUNHS AUTOU DIA THN PARESIN TWN PROGEGONOTWN AMARTHMATWN

TR has "the" before "faith" in the first line of this verse. This theological "clarification" is clearly secondary.

26 EN TH ANOXH TOU QEOU PROS THN ENDEICIN THS DIKAIOSUNHS AUTOU EN TW NUN KAIRW EIS TO EINAI AUTON DIKAION KAI DIKAIOUNTA TON EK PISTEWS IHSOU

TR expands "Jesus" into "Jesus Christ". Again, this theological "clarification" is not supported by any truly reliable manuscripts. In fact, it is supported only by 629, it(d), cop(bo) and other Byzantine texts. The simple reading "Jesus" is supported by ), A, B, C, K, P, 81, 1739.

27 POU OUN H KAUXHSIS ECEKLEISQH DIA POIOU NOMOU TWN ERGWN OUXI ALLA DIA NOMOU PISTEWS

28 LOGIZOMEQA GAR DIKAIOUSQAI PISTEI ANQRWPON XWRIS ERGWN NOMOU

The inclusion of gar in manuscripts like ), A, D*, Y, 81, 1739 and some of the versions is only barely superior to the absence of the and the Byzantine family. Since the external evidence is so divided, internal criteria must be evoked. Thus, it seems that v.28 explains v.27 and therefore an explanatory particle is needed. Yet it is this grammatical necessity which suggests that gar was added by a secondary scribe to smooth the grammar.

29 H IOUDAIWN O QEOS MONON OUXI KAI EQNWN NAI KAI EQNWN

30 EIPER EIS O QEOS OS DIKAIWSEI PERITOMHN EK PISTEWS KAI AKROBUSTIAN DIA THS PISTEWS

31 NOMON OUN KATARGOUMEN DIA THS PISTEWS MH GENOITO ALLA NOMON ISTANOMEN