Appendix 3

The Holy Spirit in the Old Testament

The Occurrences of Spirit

CREATION:

Genesis 1:2

FEMININE.

Spirit of God

And the earth was empty and barren, and darkness was upon the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God fluttered upon the face of the water.

FLUTTERED: D part. f.s. /RHP/

Genesis 6:3

MASCULINE.

My Spirit

My Spirit will not plead with mankind forever...

PLEAD: G imperf. 3ms /DYN/

Job 26:13

FEMININE

With his Spirit the heavens cleared [n.f.]...

Job 33:4

FEMININE

The Spirit of God made [G 3fs /'SH/ + 1cs suff.] me...

Job 27:3

UNCERTAIN

Because yet my breath is in me, and the Spirit of God is in my nose.

/no verbs or pronouns associated with Spirit; breath is feminine/

Psalm 104:30

UNCERTAIN

You send your spirit: they are created...

/no verbs or pronouns associated with Spirit/

Isaiah 40:13

UNCERTAIN

Who understands the Spirit of Yahweh...

/no verbs or pronouns associated with Spirit/

MOSES TO SAMUEL:

Exodus 31:3

FEMININE

Spirit of God

And I will fill him with the Spirit of God, with wisdom (f.), with understanding (f.), knowledge (f.), and with every occupation(f.)

Exodus 35:31

FEMININE

Spirit of God

And he has filled him with the Spirit of God, with wisdom (f.), with understanding (f.), knowledge (f.), and with every occupation (f.)

Numbers 11:17

UNCERTAIN

the Spirit

And I will come down and I spoke with you there and I will withdraw the Spirit which is upon you and I will put upon them and they will lift with you in the burden of the people and you will not lift alone.

Numbers 11:25

UNCERTAIN

Then Yahweh came down in the cloud and spoke with him, and he took of the Spirit that was on him and put the Spirit on the seventy elders. When the Spirit rested [KeNoWH infinitive construct /no gender specified/] on them, they prophesied, but they did not do so again.

Numbers 11:26

FEMININE

Yet the Spirit also rested [G 3fs /NWH/] on them...

Numbers 24:2

FEMININE

Numbers 27:18

UNCERTAIN

And Yahweh said to Moses, "Take to yourself Joshua, son of Nun, a man in whom is the Spirit..."

/ no verbs or pronouns connected to Spirit/

Deuteronomy 34:9

UNCERTAIN

And Joshua, son of Nun, was filled with the Spirit of wisdom because Moses placed his hands on him...

/no verbs or pronouns connected to Spirit/

Judges 3:10

FEMININE

And the Spirit of Yahweh was [G 3fs imperf. /HYH/] upon him...

Judges 6:34

FEMININE

And the Spirit of Yahweh clothed [G 3fs perf /LBS/] Gideon...

Judges 11:29

FEMININE

And the Spirit of Yahweh was [G 3fs imperf /HYH/] upon Jephthah

Judges 13:25

FEMININE

And the Spirit of Yahweh stirred [G 3fs imperf /HWL/] ...

Judges 14:6

FEMININE

And the Spirit of Yahweh rushed [G 3fs imperf. /SLH/] upon him...

Judges 14:19

FEMININE

And the Spirit of Yahweh rushed [G 3fs imperf. /SLH/ upon him...

Judges 15:14

FEMININE

him...

Nehemiah 9:20

FEMININE

And you gave your good [f.] Spirit to instruct them...

Isaiah 63:10, 11

UNCERTAIN

does not help identify the gender of the word "Spirit"]

THE UNITED MONARCHY:

1 Samuel 10:6, 10

FEMININE

vs. 6. And the Spirit of Yahweh rushed [G 3fs perf.] upon you... vs. 10 ...and the Spirit of God rushed [G 3fs imperf] upon him...

1 Samuel 11:6

FEMININE

And the Spirit of God rushed [G 3fs imperf.] upon Saul...

1 Samuel 19:20, 23

FEMININE

vs. 20 And the Spirit of God was [G 3fs imperf /HYH/] upon the servants of Saul...

vs. 23 And the Spirit of God was [G 3fs imperf] also upon him...

1 Samuel 16:14

FEMININE

And the Spirit of Yahweh turned aside [G 3fs perf /SWR/] from Saul and an injurious [adj. f.] Spirit from Yahweh fell upon [D 3fs + suff.] him

1 Samuel 16:13

FEMININE

David...

Psalm 51:10 [Heb = 51:12]6

UNCERTAIN

[no verb or pronoun to help with determining the gender of Spirit; correctness = n.m.; does not help with determining the gender of Spirit]

Psalm 51:11 [Heb = 51:13]

UNCERTAIN

help determine the gender of Spirit]

Psalm 51:12 [Heb = 51:14]

FEMININE

Psalm 139:7

UNCERTAIN

Where shall I go from your Spirit...

/no verb or pronoun to connect with Spirit/

Psalm 143:10

FEMININE

Teach me to do your will, because you are my God

Your good [adj. f.] Spirit will lead [ H 3fs imperf /NHH/ + suff.] me on level ground

1 Chron. 28:12

UNCERTAIN

And the pattern of all that he had by the Spirit...

/no verb or pronoun connected with Spirit/

2 Samuel 23:2

MASCULINE

The Spirit of Yahweh spoke [D 3ms perf /DBR/] with me and His word was upon my tongue.

/may have been forced into masculine by verses one and three, which has God of Jacob, God of Israel, Rock of Israel; the entire context stresses the power and strength of God./

1 Chron. 12:18

FEMININE

And the Spirit clothed [G 3fs perf /LBS/] Amasai, chief of the thirty

Prov. 1:23

UNCERTAIN

Behold, I will make my Spirit known to you...

/no verbs or pronouns to connect to Spirit. Is in the context of Wisdom [f.] giving a speech./

THE DIVIDED MONARCHY

2 Chron. 15:1

FEMININE

The Spirit of Yahweh was [G 3fs perf /HYH/] him...

2 Chron. 20:14

FEMININE

The Spirit of Yahweh was [G 3fs perf /HYH/] upon him...

2 Chron. 24:20

FEMININE

And the Spirit of God clothed [G 3fs perf /LBS/] Zechariah...

1 Kings 18:12

MASCULINE

I don't know where the Spirit of Yahweh will carry [G3ms imperf /NS'/ + 2ms suff.] you...

2 Kings 2:9

UNCERTAIN

[no verb or pronoun connected to Spirit]

2 Kings 2:15

FEMININE

And they said, "The Spirit of Elijah rests [G3fs perf. /NWH/] upon Elisha...

2 Kings 2:16

MASCULINE

suff.] him...

Joel 2:28, 29 [Heb. = 3:1-2]

UNCERTAIN

[No verbs or pronouns to connect Spirit with]

Hosea 9:7

UNCERTAIN

[no verbs or pronouns to connect Spirit with]

Micah 2:7

MASCULINE

Will it be said, House of Jacob, "The Spirit of Yahweh is worn out...[H3ms perf. /QSR/]

Micah 2:11

UNCERTAIN

[no verbs or pronouns to connect Spirit with]

Micah 3:8

UNCERTAIN

[no verbs or pronouns to connect Spirit with]

Isaiah 4:4

UNCERTAIN

[no verbs or pronouns to connect Spirit with]

Isaiah 11:2

FEMININE

The Spirit of Yahweh rested [G3fs perf. /NWH/] upon him, a Spirit of wisdom and discernment, a spirit of counsel and strength, a Spirit of knowledge and the fear of Yahweh

Isaiah 28:6

UNCERTAIN

And for a Spirit of justice...

[No noun or verb to connect Spirit with]

Isaiah 42:1

UNCERTAIN

[No noun or verb to connect Spirit with]

Isaiah 61:1

UNCERTAIN

The Spirit of Master Yahweh is upon me...

[No noun or verb to connect Spirit with]

Isaiah 30:1

UNCERTAIN

[no noun or verb to connect Spirit with]

Isaiah 32:15

MASCULINE

Until the Spirit is poured out [H3ms imperf. /'RH/] from on high...

Isaiah 44:3

UNCERTAIN

[no verb or pronoun to tie Spirit to]

Isaiah 59:21

UNCERTAIN

[no verb or pronoun connected to Spirit]

Isaiah 34:16

MASCULINE

Isaiah 40:7

FEMININE

Isaiah 40:13

MASCULINE

Who has understood the Spirit of Yahweh, or instructed Him as His counselor?

[masculine pronouns refer back to "Spirit of Yahweh"]

Isaiah 59:19

FEMININE

Because he will come like a pent-up flood, which the Spirit of Yahweh drives [G3fs perf. /NSS/] away.

Nehemiah 9:30

UNCERTAIN

You admonished them with your Spirit by the hand of your prophets... [no verbs or nouns connected to Spirit]

Zechariah 7:12

UNCERTAIN

They hardened their hearts from hearing the Law and the words which Yahweh of Armies sent with his Spirit by the hand of the first prophets...

[no verbs or nouns connected to Spirit]

EXILIC AND POSTEXILIC PERIOD

Ezekiel 2:2

FEMININE

And the Spirit came [G3fs imperf /BW'/] in me...

Ezekiel 3:12

FEMININE

And the Spirit lifted [G3fs imperf + 1cs suff /NS'/] me...

Ezekiel 3:14

FEMININE

And the Spirit lifted [G3fs perf + 1cs suff /NS'/] me and took [G3fs imperf + 1cs suff /LQH/] me

Ezekiel 3:24

FEMININE

And the Spirit came [G3fs imperf /BW'/] and stood [H3fs imperf /'MD/ + 1cs suff] me on my feet...

Ezekiel 8:3

FEMININE

He stretched out what looked like a hand and he took me by the hair of my head and the Spirit lifted [G3fs imperf /NS'/ ] me between earth and heaven and she brought [H3fs imperf /BW'/] me toward Jerusalem...

Ezekiel 11:1

FEMININE

The Spirit lifted [G3fs imperf. /NS'/] me and brought [H3fs imperf. /BW'/] me to the gate of the House of Yahweh...

Ezekiel 11:5

FEMININE

And the Spirit of Yahweh fell [G3fs imperf. /NPL/] upon me and He said... /note the distinction made between the Spirit of Yahweh [f.] and Yahweh speaking [m.]/

Ezekiel 11:24

FEMININE

The spirit lifted [G3fs perf. /NS'/ + 1cs suff.] me and brought [H3fs imperf. /BW'/ + 1cs suff.] me toward Babylonia...

Ezekiel 37:1

UNCERTAIN

And the hand of Yahweh was [G3fs perf /HYH/] upon me and He brought [G3ms perf /YS'/ + 1cs suff.] me by the Spirit of Yahweh...

/It is unclear what the gender of Spirit may be, since there is no verb or pronoun associated with it; however, it is interesting to notice the construction of the sentence. Hand is feminine, and so the verb immediately following it is also feminine; however, the next verb is masculine, referring apparently back to whom the hand belongs, i.e. God. The hand does not act apart from God. It has a subservient role. Those places, perhaps, where Spirit APPEARS masculine, may be functioning in the same relationship as this hand./

Ezekiel 43:5

FEMININE

And the Spirit lifted [G3fs imperf /NS'/ + 1cs suff.] me and brought [H3fs imperf /BW'/ + 1cs suff] me ...

Ezekiel 1:12

FEMININE

the Spirit went [G fem. part. /HLK/]

Ezekiel 1:20, 21

FEMININE

the Spirit went [same as above]

Ezekiel 10:17

UNCERTAIN

/no verb or pronoun to connect Spirit with/

Ezekiel 36:26, 27

vs. 26

FEMININE

I will give to you [m.pl.] a new [m.] heart and a new [f.] Spirit...

vs. 27

UNCERTAIN

I will give my Spirit in you [m.pl.]...

[no verb or pronoun to connect Spirit with]

Ezekiel 37:14

UNCERTAIN

I will give my Spirit in you [m.pl.]...

[no verb or pronoun to connect Spirit with]

Ezekiel 39:29

UNCERTAIN

"I will no longer hide my face from them which I poured my Spirit upon the house of Israel," says Master Yahweh.

[no verb or pronoun to connect Spirit with]

Haggai 2:5

FEMININE

The word which I covenanted with you in your going out from Egypt, and my Spirit is standing [G act. Part. Fem. /'MD/] in your midst...

Zechariah 4:6

UNCERTAIN

[no verb or pronoun to connect Spirit with]

Zechariah 12:10

UNCERTAIN

I will pour upon the house of David and upon the inhabitant of Jerusalem the Spirit of grace and supplication....

[no verb or pronoun to connect Spirit with]

The Holy Spirit seems to appear as a masculine in the following locations: Genesis 6:3

My Spirit will not plead with [G3ms imperf DYN] mankind forever...

2 Sam. 23:2

The Spirit of Yahweh spoke [D3ms perf /DBR/] with me and His word was upon my tongue.

/may have been forced into masculine by verses one and three, which has God of Jacob, God of Israel, Rock of Israel; the entire context stresses the power and strength of God./

1 Kings 18:12

I don't know where the Spirit of Yahweh will carry [G3ms imperf. /NS'/ + 2ms suff.] you...

2 Kings 2:16

suff.] him...

Micah 2:7

Will it be said, House of Jacob, "The Spirit of Yahweh is worn out [H3ms perf. /QSR/]...

Isaiah 32:15

Until the Spirit is poured out [H3ms imperf. /'RH/] from on high...

Isaiah 34:16

Isaiah 40:13

Who has understood the Spirit of Yahweh, or instructed Him as His counselor? [masculine pronouns may refer back to 'Spirit of Yahweh', or may refer back to Yahweh]

After a study of the use of ruah in the rest of the Old Testament, there seems to be no pattern to its use as a masculine: it is apparently a free variable. This seems clear even from just its divine use, where in the same books of the Bible where an occasional masculine use of ruah surfaces, we find it is overwhelmingly used as a feminine. It is reasonable to conclude based on this general feminine usage that the Spirit of God was felt to be feminine by the writers of Scripture. The New Testament usage of the neuter for the Spirit does not preclude this possibility.

Preliminary indications are that the percentage of times the Spirit of God is masculine is about the same percentage as it is for the occurrence of the word ruah throughout the OT.

Actual breakdown:

9 out of 89 occurrences of the Spirit of God are masculine.

44 out of 373 occurrences of spirit (of whatever sort) are masculine.

9/89 = 10.1 % masculine

44/373 = 11.8 % masculine

Spirit, when used as a masculine, seems to have the sense of either "wind" or "emotion, attitude". If it refers to the breath, or life force, the spirit, then it is feminine. The feminine can perhaps sometimes mean "wind" or "emotion, attitude", but the masculine, I would propose, can never mean "spirit" or "breath".