Lesson 4: Pronouns

1. Independent Nominatives:

1 sg = ank, (or) an
2 m. sg. = at 2 f. sg. = at
3 m. sg. = hw 3 f. sg. = hy
3 m .pl. = hm 3 f. pl. = hn

2. Oblique Cases:

3 m. sg. = hwt 3 f. sg. = hyt (him! or her! respectively)

This case is also used in the accusative sense as the case of address meaning “honor him!”, etc.

3. Possessive:

When a word show possession, it ends in -y in the 1st person singular. In the 2 and 3 person singular the ending is -k (or sometimes -n) or -h (respectively). When a word is a dual the ending is -ny (1st person), -hm (3rd person), -n (1st plural), -km (2nd plural), -hm (3rd plural). When possession is emphatic the independent pronoun may be added (as in Hebrew).

4. Demonstrative Pronoun:

The demonstrative is hnd (this, or these).

5. Personal and Impersonal Pronouns:

Who? and What? are, in Ugaritic, my and mh (respectively). “All” is kll or kl.

6. Interrogative Pronoun:

The interrogative denotes an object rather than a person; and asks the question, who or what. In Ugaritic, who? is my and what? is mh.


Assignment: Memorize the pronouns above. Write them out and reduplicate them as often as necessary until you know them very well.